Die Dramen (German Edition)

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Book Description De Gruyter, Condition: New. More information about this seller Contact this seller. Book Description Walter de Gruyter, New Book. Shipped from US within 10 to 14 business days. Established seller since Seller Inventory IQ Delivered from our UK warehouse in 4 to 14 business days. Book Description De Gruyter, Germany, Language: Greek, Ancient to Brand new Book. Ist der gute Ausgang ironisch gemeint? Der Kommentar, der keine Griechischkenntnisse voraussetzt, geht neben Sach- und Textfragen auch auf die Motivstruktur ein. Ein Anhang zu Metrik und ein Literaturverzeichnis runden den Band ab.

Seller Inventory APC Alkestis Griechische Dramen German Edition. Publisher: De Gruyter , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. During the first phase of my research in the first-year classroom , I discovered that drama activities do not necessarily succeed in breaking down barriers, either between students and teacher, or between different groups of students within a class. The first-year students did not respond well to drama activities such as the On the Raft exercise see Appendix A , or the At the Party exercise see Appendix A and increasingly refused to cooperate when I attempted to introduce such activities.

They did not move when asked to do so, and repeatedly refused to rearrange classroom furniture. These students also demonstrated reluctance to cooperate with other class members who belonged to different course groups. Consequently, my research for this particular phase changed direction away from the development of further scenarios, and toward an understanding of, and therefore a possible resolution to, uncooperative group behaviour. It also became clear to me that, due to my inexperience with drama techniques, I had used inappropriate exercises with this first-year group, such as pretending to be on a raft.

Bernat 4 reminds us that adults are proud of their independence, and that treating adult learners as if they were not fully independent attacks their pride in themselves. This must be particularly true of year-olds, who have only just reached adulthood. It is probable that my methods in the first-year classroom were regarded by the students as forcing them to be childish and undignified.

Bernat ibid.

An entirely new teaching and learning method may have caused them to feel threatened, particularly if the idea of learning a language at third-level did not appeal to them to begin with. I realised belatedly that drama techniques should only be introduced after students have established a good working relationship with each other and with the teacher. These first-years were trying to cope simultaneously with unfamiliar classmates, an unfamiliar learning environment, and an unfamiliar teacher; it was not an appropriate time to introduce new teaching and learning methods as well.

She believes that a combination of instinct and experience will tell the teacher how to do this.

I believe that I did not achieve a successful transition between the teacher roles of facilitator , independent participant , counsellor , and manager that Schewe lists as essential for classroom drama. Perhaps my inexperience in using drama, combined with my unfamiliarity with the first-years, caused me to be instinctively cautious, rendering me reluctant to relinquish my counsellor and manager roles and become a participant on an equal footing with the students. Low motivation to participate in the first-year German class resulted in fluctuating attendance levels; this meant that most relationships within this class — apart from those between the few regular and, arguably, more motivated attendees — could not be established.

The ice did not break in this first-year class. Until the climate warms sufficiently, ice has a habit of re-forming. As a different set of students was present for each class, the few students who attended regularly were constantly readjusting to different group members. A lesson had to be repeated on more than one occasion, as no-one present had been to the preceding class.

Anna Goldin (Fiction, Poetry and Drama) (Fiction, Poetry & Drama) (German Edition)

This is not an ideal climate in which to attempt group cohesion exercises. The second-year class was half the size of the first-year class, and contained students from only two different courses as opposed to three in the case of the first-year group ; I believed this would facilitate a higher level of group cohesion. In fact, the use of drama activities with both the second- and third-year classes the latter in collaboration with Mr. Huber were more successful, probably because the students were more familiar with each other and with me and, in the case of the third-years, Mr.

Huber , and also with their environment. I first introduced paired role-playing activities using physical movement to the second-year class as an example see Appendix B: Exercise 1. Drawing on my experience with the first-years, the second-years were allowed to pair up with whomever they chose to sit on entering the classroom during this initial phase, an approach recommended by di Pietro 71 :.

Allowing students to seek out their own groups with whom to work improves the chances that they will be productive in their learning tasks. Exercises for larger groups followed from the paired exercises as an example see Appendix C: Exercise 2 , leading ultimately to whole-group exercises see Appendices IV and V: Im Restaurant. Way 44 advocates this method, as it allows for different stages of development in the use of drama in the classroom to be achieved in a natural fashion:.

This gradual phasing in of group exercises was coupled with a change in the physical layout of the classroom, and adding props, to accommodate the transition to more elaborate role-playing required by Exercise 3 see Appendix D. The waiter demonstrated an ability to think quickly and respond in German when dealing with customer complaints see Picture 4 , and, where vocabulary was lacking, he and the other students utilised paralinguistic communication skills to compensate. It is probable that they did not perform a sufficient number of exercises to become comfortable with this method; the grammar-orientated syllabus prevented the inclusion of a greater number of activities.

Although the responses of the second- and third-year students who participated in the drama activities were very positive, use of these activities did not noticeably improve attendance levels. Such activities cannot be successfully performed without group cohesion and an established atmosphere of trust; these cannot be properly established where attendance is low.

Poor attendance is mentioned repeatedly throughout my observation notes for all years, and was commented on by Mr.

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Huber and the second-year students themselves. Longer exercises with the second-year students resulted in the repetition of preparatory classes as a result of low attendance. I also learned that exercises had to be flexible enough to accommodate four to fourteen students, as I could not be sure how many students would be present on any given day. I had expected that the second-year Tourism and Catering class would respond more positively to drama activities than the first-years, because they knew each other and me, and I considered them to be a more cohesive group.

However, subsequent to the performance of the final exercise, a Tourism student expressed the belief that relationships had not formed successfully between his group and the Catering students. Although this class had performed the exercises in a satisfactory manner, and had provided some positive feedback, it became clear that the full potential of the activities was not being realised, as this group still lacked cohesion.

I also discovered that classroom layout can present a physical, and a psychological, barrier to the performance of drama activities. Although many of the classrooms in CIT are small, they have the design of third-level lecture-theatres and consist of fixed, tiered benches. Drama activities often require a large amount of floor space, or the rearrangement of furniture. Wessels 22 likens this type of environment to performing in a vacuum:. Unfortunately, her recommendation to dispense with the traditional arrangement of desks cannot be followed for most rooms in CIT.

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Subsequent to the second and third-year performances, it became clear that all of the students needed to embrace additional learning strategies. Despite repeated attempts during preparation to teach them conversational management devices and the correct use of register using choral speaking, listening comprehension and basic role-playing , the students did not use these devices effectively during their performances. Only by doing this, and by reinforcing the vocabulary through successful teaching and learning strategies, can the language required for everyday interaction be retained.

However, it remains unclear as to which learning strategies are suited to students who are unwilling to devote a large amount of time to learning a language. Based on my research, Mr. This should allow for a greater number of varied drama activities to be incorporated into weekly classes, in order for the students to become comfortable with using them.

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Activities such as dramatic role-playing and mime have also been incorporated into the new first-year Business Studies syllabus; it remains to be seen if these can be introduced successfully. My research was unable to determine whether drama activities can raise motivation levels in students. It is not the intention of this article to detract from such successful outcomes, but to contribute a cautionary note to the existing literature on drama in the language classroom. Drama has been proven to be a valuable language teaching and learning tool; however, if it is used in an inappropriate manner, it may not automatically achieve the positive outcomes that an inexperienced teacher may expect.

It is only by considering such things as group dynamics, motivation levels, trust issues, the environment and fluctuating attendance levels that a teacher in a similar situation to my own might successfully conduct drama activities with his or her students.


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Westport, CT: Ablex Publishing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. March 10, Conlin, Christine : Unternehmen Deutsch. London: Chancerel. Di Pietro, Robert J. Learning Languages Through Scenarios. June 7, London: Pearson. London: MacMillan. The Visible and Invisible Classroom. London: Sage. Hadfield, Jill : Classroom Dynamics. Resource Books for Teachers. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Heathcote, Dorothy : Training needs for the future. London: Pitman. Westport, CT: Ablex, Holden, Susan : Drama in Language Teaching.

Essex: Longman. London and New York: Longman. A resource book of communication activities for language teachers. McNiff, Jean : Action Research. Principles and Practice. London: Routledge. Oxford University Press. July 14, Moody, Douglas J.

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Westport, CT: Ablex Publishing, Morrow, Keith : Principles of communicative methodology.